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破产名单:这些大公司终究没能撑过疫情

破产名单:这些大公司终究没能撑过疫情

《财富》编辑部 2020年08月08日
疫情给一些公司带来了新机会,但经济停摆也让许多公司直接陷入破产境地。

New Generation Research公司CEO詹姆斯·哈蒙德曾经告诉《财富》杂志:“我们看到公司破产的速度正在加快,达到前所未有的程度。”该公司经营破产数据网站BankruptcyData。

对于2020年,哈蒙德说:“我相信今年公司破产的数量,将是许多生意人终生都难得一见的。”哈蒙德表示,仅按资产计算,今年破产公司的规模已经超过了2008年。

以下是新冠疫情期间已经申请破产的公司清单。随着更多公司宣布申请破产保护,这个清单还会继续更新。

维珍大西洋航空

理查德·布兰森创办的维珍大西洋航空(Virgin Atlantic)8月4日在纽约根据《破产法》第15章申请破产保护。达美航空(Delta)持有该公司49%的股份。第15章是针对在多个国家经营的跨国公司提供的一种破产保护,与其他条款略有不同。该航空公司此前曾尝试获得英国政府的救助,还公布了一项私人救助计划,但这些努力都未能让该公司免于破产。

Lord & Taylor

这家知名百货商店的历史可以追溯到1826年。当时其创始人在纽约下东城开了一家干货店。但面临新冠疫情带来的财务压力,这家公司已经难以为继。该连锁百货商店及其母公司服装租赁初创公司LeTote,都在8月2日申请破产保护。

Tailored Brands

连锁零售商Men's Warehouse和Jos. A. Bank的母公司Tailored Brands于8月2日依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护。据《财富》杂志报道:“越来越多男士选择更休闲的职场着装,同时Suit Supply等新品牌和服务日益流行,这些趋势导致该零售商在新冠疫情之前就已经面临着严峻的挑战。疫情封锁期间门店关闭,而且有成百上千万男士一直在家办公,因此不需要购买新西装,让Tailored走向了破产。最近一个季度,该公司的销售额下跌了60.4%,只有2.87亿美元。”

无印良品美国

7月10日,日本零售商无印良品(Muji)的美国子公司宣布依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护。无印良品的母公司为株式会社良品计画(Ryohin Keikaku Co.)。无印良品在声明中表示,其网站和目前仍在营业的零售店将继续运营,因为公司开始“与贷款商和其他利益相关方就财务重组计划展开建设性讨论。”

Sur La Table

7月9日,西雅图公司Sur La Table宣布已经申请破产,并收到了峰堡投资集团有限责任公司(Fortress Investment Group LLC)的收购要约。该连锁零售商称,计划将70家门店出售给峰堡投资,关闭51家门店,但烹饪课和线上业务将继续运营。

Brooks Brothers

当全世界的人都穿着运动休闲装在家办公的时候,不适合经营销售学院风服装的高端豪华商场。Brooks Brothers创建于1818年,以其蓝色运动夹克和雅致的羊毛衫而闻名。该公司在7月中旬申请破产保护。

赫兹

到目前为止,依据《破产法》第11章申请破产的美国公司规模最大的是汽车租赁公司赫兹(Hertz)。在旅游业彻底停滞之后,该公司的经营难以为继,目前正对外出售车队,以满足债权人的要求。

切萨皮克能源

6月28日,位于奥克拉荷马市的大型能源公司切萨皮克能源(Chesapeake Energy)依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,成为全球停工导致需求大幅下跌的牺牲品之一。该公司公布的资产与负债在100亿美元和500亿美元之间,共有10万多家债权人。

NPC International公司

必胜客(Pizza Hut)最大的特许加盟商NPC International公司在7月1日宣布破产。NPC在1962年开了第一家必胜客餐厅,其在美国拥有超过1,225家必胜客餐厅和超过385家温蒂快餐厅(Wendy’s)。

Le Pain Quotidien美国业务

我的天啊!这家被人们亲切称为“Le Pain Q”的连锁店在美国有许多粉丝,它的面包和昂贵的沙拉备受喜爱,但长时间停工让该公司损失惨重。据彭博社报道,该连锁店的销售额在疫情之前已经呈现出下滑趋势,去年其美国业务的销售额只有1.53亿美元,亏损近1,700万美元:“依据《破产法》第11章申请破产,使Le Pain Quotidien可以进行债务重组,并出售给Aurify Brands有限责任公司,但该交易需要法院批准。拟在该公司担任首席重组官的史蒂夫·弗莱明在一份法院声明中表示,如果不对外出售,该公司只能清算98家美国门店。”

GNC

膳食补充剂连锁品牌GNC在6月23日申请破产。《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜曾经写道,连续数年销售下滑,导致GNC无法偿还今年到期的巨额债务,最终彻底击垮了该公司。事实上,“GNC的情况是实体店零售商在电商业务领域行动迟缓的典型例子。上个季度,该公司线上销售额增长了25%,但这远远无法弥补大幅减少的实体店销售额。”奇怪的是,交易商依旧在抓紧机会买进和卖出这家破产公司的股票。

尼曼集团

《财富》杂志在5月7日曾经报道:“总部位于达拉斯的知名奢侈品零售商尼曼集团(Neiman Marcus)已经依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,并提出了有关债权人的预装破产计划,将大幅减轻公司的债务负担。尼曼集团旗下拥有纽约商场Bergdorf Goodman。这一安排将使尼曼集团获得更多喘息的空间,度过此次全球疫情和重建公司的业务。”

彭尼百货

彭尼百货(J.C. Penney)的规模和在美国零售业中的重要地位,曾经只有西尔斯百货(Sears)能与其匹敌,但新冠疫情给该连锁零售商带来了致命一击。《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜写道:“多年来,该公司一直在苦苦挣扎,其净销售额从2007年的199亿美元下降到2019年的107亿美元,虽然在过去十年公司多次尝试转型,但其自我改造不足以留住消费者。公司首席执行官吉尔·索尔陶认为新冠疫情把它推下了破产的深渊。”除了在5月中旬申请破产以外,该公司在一篇新闻稿中表示,会考虑其他多种方案,包括挂牌出售。

J.Crew

备受喜爱的学院风服装零售商J. Crew在年初有一系列高调举措,包括任命新CEO,并表示要剥离备受喜爱的Madewell品牌等,但新冠疫情的爆发令其遭遇障碍。正如《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜所写:“新冠疫情导致J. Crew和Madewell这些基于商场的连锁零售商大量关店,让这家私募股权基金所有、负债累累的公司在财务上彻底崩溃。”该公司在5月依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,“将帮助J. Crew集团摆脱债务的束缚,把债务转换为股权,给这家麻烦缠身但依旧深受喜爱的公司它真正需要的东西:经过数年混乱之后从头开始进行自我改造的机会。”

CEC Entertainment

一年时间能带来多大的变化?去年4月,出奇老鼠(Chuck E. Cheese)的母公司CEC还在准备首次公开募股。但今年6月底,这家公司却进入了破产保护程序。该公司有612家出奇老鼠门店和122家Peter Piper Pizza餐厅,目前还没有公布哪些将被关闭。该公司表示一半餐厅已经恢复营业,在特定时间提供店内用餐、送餐、外卖或派对等服务。(188金宝搏 下载)

译者:Biz

New Generation Research公司CEO詹姆斯·哈蒙德曾经告诉《财富》杂志:“我们看到公司破产的速度正在加快,达到前所未有的程度。”该公司经营破产数据网站BankruptcyData。

对于2020年,哈蒙德说:“我相信今年公司破产的数量,将是许多生意人终生都难得一见的。”哈蒙德表示,仅按资产计算,今年破产公司的规模已经超过了2008年。

以下是新冠疫情期间已经申请破产的公司清单。随着更多公司宣布申请破产保护,这个清单还会继续更新。

维珍大西洋航空

理查德·布兰森创办的维珍大西洋航空(Virgin Atlantic)8月4日在纽约根据《破产法》第15章申请破产保护。达美航空(Delta)持有该公司49%的股份。第15章是针对在多个国家经营的跨国公司提供的一种破产保护,与其他条款略有不同。该航空公司此前曾尝试获得英国政府的救助,还公布了一项私人救助计划,但这些努力都未能让该公司免于破产。

Lord & Taylor

这家知名百货商店的历史可以追溯到1826年。当时其创始人在纽约下东城开了一家干货店。但面临新冠疫情带来的财务压力,这家公司已经难以为继。该连锁百货商店及其母公司服装租赁初创公司LeTote,都在8月2日申请破产保护。

Tailored Brands

连锁零售商Men's Warehouse和Jos. A. Bank的母公司Tailored Brands于8月2日依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护。据《财富》杂志报道:“越来越多男士选择更休闲的职场着装,同时Suit Supply等新品牌和服务日益流行,这些趋势导致该零售商在新冠疫情之前就已经面临着严峻的挑战。疫情封锁期间门店关闭,而且有成百上千万男士一直在家办公,因此不需要购买新西装,让Tailored走向了破产。最近一个季度,该公司的销售额下跌了60.4%,只有2.87亿美元。”

无印良品美国

7月10日,日本零售商无印良品(Muji)的美国子公司宣布依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护。无印良品的母公司为株式会社良品计画(Ryohin Keikaku Co.)。无印良品在声明中表示,其网站和目前仍在营业的零售店将继续运营,因为公司开始“与贷款商和其他利益相关方就财务重组计划展开建设性讨论。”

Sur La Table

7月9日,西雅图公司Sur La Table宣布已经申请破产,并收到了峰堡投资集团有限责任公司(Fortress Investment Group LLC)的收购要约。该连锁零售商称,计划将70家门店出售给峰堡投资,关闭51家门店,但烹饪课和线上业务将继续运营。

Brooks Brothers

当全世界的人都穿着运动休闲装在家办公的时候,不适合经营销售学院风服装的高端豪华商场。Brooks Brothers创建于1818年,以其蓝色运动夹克和雅致的羊毛衫而闻名。该公司在7月中旬申请破产保护。

赫兹

到目前为止,依据《破产法》第11章申请破产的美国公司规模最大的是汽车租赁公司赫兹(Hertz)。在旅游业彻底停滞之后,该公司的经营难以为继,目前正对外出售车队,以满足债权人的要求。

切萨皮克能源

6月28日,位于奥克拉荷马市的大型能源公司切萨皮克能源(Chesapeake Energy)依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,成为全球停工导致需求大幅下跌的牺牲品之一。该公司公布的资产与负债在100亿美元和500亿美元之间,共有10万多家债权人。

NPC International公司

必胜客(Pizza Hut)最大的特许加盟商NPC International公司在7月1日宣布破产。NPC在1962年开了第一家必胜客餐厅,其在美国拥有超过1,225家必胜客餐厅和超过385家温蒂快餐厅(Wendy’s)。

Le Pain Quotidien美国业务

我的天啊!这家被人们亲切称为“Le Pain Q”的连锁店在美国有许多粉丝,它的面包和昂贵的沙拉备受喜爱,但长时间停工让该公司损失惨重。据彭博社报道,该连锁店的销售额在疫情之前已经呈现出下滑趋势,去年其美国业务的销售额只有1.53亿美元,亏损近1,700万美元:“依据《破产法》第11章申请破产,使Le Pain Quotidien可以进行债务重组,并出售给Aurify Brands有限责任公司,但该交易需要法院批准。拟在该公司担任首席重组官的史蒂夫·弗莱明在一份法院声明中表示,如果不对外出售,该公司只能清算98家美国门店。”

GNC

膳食补充剂连锁品牌GNC在6月23日申请破产。《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜曾经写道,连续数年销售下滑,导致GNC无法偿还今年到期的巨额债务,最终彻底击垮了该公司。事实上,“GNC的情况是实体店零售商在电商业务领域行动迟缓的典型例子。上个季度,该公司线上销售额增长了25%,但这远远无法弥补大幅减少的实体店销售额。”奇怪的是,交易商依旧在抓紧机会买进和卖出这家破产公司的股票。

尼曼集团

《财富》杂志在5月7日曾经报道:“总部位于达拉斯的知名奢侈品零售商尼曼集团(Neiman Marcus)已经依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,并提出了有关债权人的预装破产计划,将大幅减轻公司的债务负担。尼曼集团旗下拥有纽约商场Bergdorf Goodman。这一安排将使尼曼集团获得更多喘息的空间,度过此次全球疫情和重建公司的业务。”

彭尼百货

彭尼百货(J.C. Penney)的规模和在美国零售业中的重要地位,曾经只有西尔斯百货(Sears)能与其匹敌,但新冠疫情给该连锁零售商带来了致命一击。《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜写道:“多年来,该公司一直在苦苦挣扎,其净销售额从2007年的199亿美元下降到2019年的107亿美元,虽然在过去十年公司多次尝试转型,但其自我改造不足以留住消费者。公司首席执行官吉尔·索尔陶认为新冠疫情把它推下了破产的深渊。”除了在5月中旬申请破产以外,该公司在一篇新闻稿中表示,会考虑其他多种方案,包括挂牌出售。

J.Crew

备受喜爱的学院风服装零售商J. Crew在年初有一系列高调举措,包括任命新CEO,并表示要剥离备受喜爱的Madewell品牌等,但新冠疫情的爆发令其遭遇障碍。正如《财富》杂志的菲尔·沃赫拜所写:“新冠疫情导致J. Crew和Madewell这些基于商场的连锁零售商大量关店,让这家私募股权基金所有、负债累累的公司在财务上彻底崩溃。”该公司在5月依据《破产法》第11章申请破产保护,“将帮助J. Crew集团摆脱债务的束缚,把债务转换为股权,给这家麻烦缠身但依旧深受喜爱的公司它真正需要的东西:经过数年混乱之后从头开始进行自我改造的机会。”

CEC Entertainment

一年时间能带来多大的变化?去年4月,出奇老鼠(Chuck E. Cheese)的母公司CEC还在准备首次公开募股。但今年6月底,这家公司却进入了破产保护程序。该公司有612家出奇老鼠门店和122家Peter Piper Pizza餐厅,目前还没有公布哪些将被关闭。该公司表示一半餐厅已经恢复营业,在特定时间提供店内用餐、送餐、外卖或派对等服务。(188金宝搏 下载)

译者:Biz

“We are seeing an acceleration in bankruptcies that is unprecedented,” James Hammond, CEO of New Generation Research, which runs BankruptcyData, previously told Fortune.

For 2020, he says, “I’m pretty confident we will see more bankruptcies than in any businessperson’s lifetime.” Ranked by assets alone, says Hammond, the magnitude of bankruptcies this year has already surpassed that of 2008.

Below is a running list of companies that have filed for bankruptcy during the pandemic. We'll add to this list as more Chapter 11 filings are announced.

Virgin Atlantic

Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic—which is 49% owned by Delta—filed for Chapter 15 protection in New York on August 4th. Chapter 15 is a slightly different form of bankruptcy protection designed for companies that operate in multiple countries. Though the airline had previously tried to obtain a British government bailout, as well as put together a private rescue package, those efforts were not enough to save the company from bankruptcy.

Lord & Taylor

Though the storied department store traced its roots back to 1826 when its founders launched a dry good store on New York's Lower East Side, it could not survive the financial strain of COVID. The chain—and its owner, clothing rental startup LeTote—both filed for bankruptcy protection on August 2.

Tailored Brands

The parent company of the Men's Warehouse and Jos. A. Bank chains filed for Chapter 11 on August 2. As Fortune reported: "The retailer had been facing big challenges before the COVID-19 pandemic, with men increasingly opting for more casual clothing at work and the rising popularity of newer brands and services like Suit Supply. Store closings during lockdowns and millions of men not needing new suits because they're working from home for now pushed Tailored over the edge. In its most recent quarter, sales fell 60.4% to $287 million."

Muji U.S.

On July 10, the U.S. subsidiary of Japanese retailer Muji, operated by Ryohin Keikaku Co., announced it would file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In a statement, the company said it will remain open for business on its website and currently operating retail locations as it begins "constructive discussions with its lenders and other stakeholders regarding the terms of a financial restructuring plan."

Sur La Table

On July 9, the Seattle company Sur La Table announced that it had filed for bankruptcy and had a buyout offer from Fortress Investment Group LLC. The chain said it planned to sell 70 stores to Fortress, close another 51, and keep operating cooking classes and its web business.

Brooks Brothers

When the world is working from home wearing athleisure, it's no time to be running an upscale prepster emporium. The storied purveyor of blue blazers and tasteful cardigans—in business since 1818—filed for bankruptcy protection in mid July.

Hertz

The largest Chapter 11 bankruptcy so far has been that of car-rental company Hertz. Unable to hold on after the travel industry effectively hit the brakes, the company is now selling off much of its fleet in a bid to meet demands from creditors.

Chesapeake Energy

On June 28, the huge energy company based in Oklahoma City filed for Chapter 11, a victim of the staggering reduction in demand amidst the global shutdown. The company reported assets and liabilities in the range of $10 billion and $50 billion and more than 100,000 creditors.

NPC International Inc.

The largest franchisee of Pizza Hut restaurants declared bankruptcy on July 1. NPC opened its first Pizza Hut restaurant in 1962 and operates more than 1,225 Pizza Hut and more than 385 Wendy’s stores across the U.S.

Le Pain Quotidien, U.S. arm

Mon dieu! Despite legions of loyal fans who loved the chain's bread and pricey salads, a prolonged shutdown took a great toll on the company affectionally referred to as "Le Pain Q." According to Bloomberg, the chain's sales were already slipping pre-pandemic, with the U.S. arm reporting a nearly $17 million loss on $153 million in sales last year: "The Chapter 11 petition allows Le Pain Quotidien to rework its debts and carry out a sale to Aurify Brands LLC, which requires court approval. Without the sale, the company would’ve had to liquidate its 98 U.S. stores, proposed Chief Restructuring Officer Steven Fleming said in a court declaration."

GNC

The supplement chain filed for bankruptcy on June 23. As Fortune's Phil Wahba wrote, GNC was slammed by yearslong sales declines that made it impossible to meet enormous debt obligations coming due this year." Indeed, "GNC's case is the classic tale of a brick-and-mortar retailer getting its e-commerce business going too late. Online sales rose 25% last quarter but were too small of a business to make up for the huge declines in-store." Oddly, traders still managed to have a field day dodging in and out of shares of the bankrupt company.

Neiman Marcus

On May 7, as Fortune wrote, "the storied Dallas-based luxe purveyor, which also owns New York's Bergdorf Goodman emporium, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in a pre-packaged arrangement with creditors that will significantly lower its debt load. The arrangement should give it more breathing room to weather the global pandemic and rebuild its business."

J.C. Penney

COVID proved a knockout blow to the chain that was once rivaled only by Sears in terms of size and importance in U.S. retailing. According to Fortune's Phil Wahba: "While the company has been struggling for years—net sales in 2019 were $10.7 billion, down from $19.9 billion in 2007—and has failed to reinvent itself enough to keep shoppers despite many turnaround attempts in the last decade, chief executive Jill Soltau suggested the COVID-19 outbreak pushed it over the edge." In addition to the mid-May filing, Penney said in a news release that it would explore a number of options including selling the company.

J. Crew

Though the beloved purveyor of preppy gear started the year off on a high note with a new CEO and talk of spinning off the well-regarded Madewell brand, it hit a wall as the pandemic descended. As Fortune's Phil Wahba wrote, "the mass store closings that the pandemic imposed on mall-based chains like J.Crew and Madewell pushed the highly indebted private-equity owned company over the edge financially." The company's May Chapter 11 filing, "will remove the debt albatross from J.Crew Group's neck by turning it into equity, and give the troubled but still beloved company something it really needs: a clean slate to reinvent itself after years of turmoil."

CEC Entertainment

What a difference a year makes. Last April, CEC, the parent company of Chuck E. Cheese, was prepping for an IPO. Instead, at the end of June, they entered bankruptcy protection. At the time, the company did not announce plans to close any of the 612 Chuck E. Cheese locations or 122 Peter Piper Pizza restaurants and said that half of its locations had been reopened for dine-in, delivery, carry-out, or parties during certain hours.

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